Overview

RightScale Optima provides a set of recommendations based on a set of rules. Most rules have rule settings that can be configured to tailor the set of recommendations produced. The sections below describe how each of the rules works and describes the rule settings that are available. Reference the actions page for all available actions that can be performed on recommendations.

List of Optima Recommendations

Recommendation Rule What It Does Source Data
Low Account Usage Identifies accounts with spend below a configurable threshold. This can represent tests or experiments that can be terminated or usage that can be consolidated into other accounts. Cloud bill only
Low Service Usage Identifies specific cloud services in a particular region with spend below a configurable threshold. This can represent tests or experiments that can be terminated or usage that can be consolidated into other accounts. Cloud bill only
Disallowed Usage Identifies combinations of clouds, accounts, regions, and services that are not allowed according to your organization’s policies. This usage can be investigated for potential termination. Cloud bill only
Cheaper Regions Identifies instances in regions where there is a nearby region with lower costs. These resources can be moved to the less expensive region. Cloud bill only
Superseded Instance Type Identifies older instance types that can be migrated to newer, better, and less expensive instance types. Cloud bill only
Schedule Instances Idenitfies instances that can be stopped or terminated outside of business hours to save on cost. Cloud bill only
Unattached Volumes (AWS Feature Only) Idenitfies volumes that are unattached and can be deleted to save on cost. Usage data only

Global Rule Settings

Minimum Savings Threshold

Forecasted minimum monthly savings amount ($) per resource that triggers a recommendation. This setting applies to all recommendations. Changing the value of this setting will be reflected in all recommendations.

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0

Example: 1.5 This will exclude recommendations that save less than $1.50.

Recommendation Rules

Superseded Instance Type

Change instances to use newer, less expensive instance types.

How it Works

Cloud vendors periodically offer new instance types that have similar profiles (high mem, high CPU, etc) but deliver higher performance and lower costs than the legacy types they replace. This recommendation will identify opportunites to shift to the newer instance types in order to get better value. These recommendations are made by comparing the actual monthly cost of the current instance (including any applied Reserved Instances) with the on-demand cost of the equivalent size of the newer generation instance type.

Sample Recommendation

Relaunch the instance using instance type m3.xlarge instead of the current m1.xlarge to reduce the monthly cost from a projected $256.200 to $194.712, calculated using on-demand rates.

optima-superseded-recommendation.png   

Rule Settings

Microsoft Compute New Instance Type Mappings

Specify which Azure instance types to analyze for this recommendation by using specific instance types or a pattern for old instance types and the corresponding new instance types. A pattern can only be used to map older series types to a newer generation of the same series. For instance, specifying a pattern as Standard_D*v1->Standard_D*_v2 maps all Standard D-series v1 types to the corresponding Standard D-series v2 types. Example: StandardD*v1->Standard_D*_v2, BasicA3->Standard_A3_v2

  • Type: string_map
  • Default value:
Old Instance Type New Instance Type
Standard_A1 Standard_A1_v2
Standard_A2 Standard_A2_v2
Standard_A3 Standard_A4_v2
Standard_A4 Standard_A8_v2
Standard_A5 Standard_A2m_v2
Standard_A6 Standard_A4m_v2
Standard_A7 Standard_A8m_v2
Standard_D*_v1 Standard_D*_v2

New EC2 Instance Type Mappings

Specify which instance types to analyze for this recommendation by specifying a pattern for old instance types and the corresponding pattern for the new types. Use * as a wildcard to indicate that all instance sizes in a family should map to the same size. In cases where the instance size must be changed to match the specs for the new instance family, you can specify both the instance family and the instance size as shown in the m2 to r3 mappings below.

  • Type: string_map
  • Default value:
Old Instance Type New Instance Type
c1.* c3.*
hs1.* d2.*
m2.xlarge r3.large
m2.2xlarge r3.xlarge
m2.4xlarge r3.2large
m1.* m3.*
t1.* t2.*
i2.* i3.*
cr1.* r3.*
hi1.* i3.*

Minimum Instance Savings Threshold

Minimum forecasted monthly savings per instance that will trigger a recommendation. Note: this setting applies to multiple recommendations, including Cheaper Region & Place Instances On A Schedule. Changing the value of this setting will also be reflected in the Cheaper Region & Place Instances On A Schedule recommendation. Example: 100.00

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0

Cheaper Region

Move instances to nearby, less expensive regions.

How it works

Instance costs are not the same across all regions of a given cloud, and in certain cases there may be a less expensive region in a nearby geographic area. Unless you have requirements for running in an expensive region, you should consider moving those resources.

These recommendations are made by comparing the actual monthly instance cost of the current region (including any applied Reserved Instances) with the on-demand cost of the less expensive nearby region.

Sample Recommendation

Move the instance from EU (Frankfurt) to EU (Ireland) to reduce the forecast monthly spend from $470.676 to $347.700, calculated using on-demand rates.

optima-cheaper-region-recommendation.png

Rule Settings

Azure Cheaper Regions

Specify which regions have cheaper alternatives by specifying the expensive region name and the cheaper region name for analysis. Valid values for these mappings can be found in the documentation. Example: East US 2 -> East US

  • Type: string_map
  • Default value:
Expensive Region Name Cheaper Region Name
Canada Central Canada East
Central US West US 2
East US East US 2
Japan East Korea South
Japan West Korea South
Korea Central Korea South
North Europe UK West
West Europe UK South
West US West US 2

EC2 Cheaper Regions

Specify which regions have less expensive alternatives by specifying the expensive region name and the less expensive nearby region name that you want Optima to analyze for savings. Valid values can be found in the Region Name column on the tables found here. Example: US West (N. California) -> US West (Oregon)

  • Type: string_map
  • Default value:
Expensive Region Name Cheaper Region Name
US West (N. California) US West (Oregon)
Canada (Central) US East (Ohio)
EU (London) EU (Ireland)
EU (Frankfurt) EU (Ireland)
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Asia Pacific (Seoul)
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Asia Pacific (Mumbai)

Minimum Instance Savings Threshold

Minimum forecasted monthly savings per instance that will trigger a recommendation. Note: this setting applies to multiple recommendations, including Superseded Instance Type & Place Instances On A Schedule. Changing the value of this setting will also be reflected in the Superseded Instance Type & Place Instances On A Schedule recommendation. Example: 100.00

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0

optima-cheaper-region-rule-settings.png

Low Service Usage

Terminate unused services.

How it works

Low usage of a specific service in a region by an account is often indicative of tests or experiments by users, which often are forgotten and left running when they are no longer being used. Investigate this usage to determine if these services should be terminated or potentially consolidated into a larger account or region for ease of management.

Sample Recommendation

At an estimated run-rate of $90.582, this service in this account & region represents only 0.0738119335191068% of the total estimated run-rate for this month in this cloud. Investigate this service to determine if it can be terminated or consolidated into another account/region for ease of management.

The top 10 costs/resources are:

  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.492 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage
  • $0.787 for Storage vol-xxxxxxxxxxxxx EBS:VolumeUsage.gp2
  • $18.300 for Load Balancer arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-west-2:123412341234:loadbalancer/elb-test LoadBalancerUsage
  • $28.660 for Compute Instance i-xxxxxxxxxxxxx BoxUsage

optima-low-service-recommendation.png

Rule Settings

Low Service Spend Threshold

Estimated run-rate for a service in a particular account/region, below which a recommendation should be triggered. Example: 100.0

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 100.0

optima-low-service-rule-settings.png

Low Account Usage

Cancel or consolidate accounts with low usage.

How it works

Accounts with very low usage often stem from tests or experiments, and users often forget to shut down all servers and services in such accounts. Investigate these accounts to determine if they should be cancelled or could be consolidated into larger accounts for ease of management.

Sample Recommendation

This account has a monthly run rate of only $894.168, which is only 0.7286237403714132% of the total monthly run-rate.

You should consider deleting this account or consolidating it.

The top 10 costs/resources in this account are:

  • $20.420 for AmazonEC2 (SpotUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $30.269 for AmazonEC2 (BoxUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $30.269 for AmazonEC2 (BoxUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $30.269 for AmazonEC2 (BoxUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $35.685 for AmazonEC2 (SpotUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $39.355 for AmazonEC2 (EBS:VolumeUsage.gp2) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $63.052 for AmazonEC2 (ElasticIP:IdleAddress) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $118.755 for AmazonEC2 (EBS:SnapshotUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $139.080 for AmazonEC2 (HeavyUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)
  • $139.080 for AmazonEC2 (HeavyUsage) in US East (N. Virginia)

optima-low-account-recommendation.png

Rule Settings

Low Account Spend Threshold

Estimated run-rate for an account, below which, a recommendation should be triggered. Example: 1000.0

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1000.0

optima-low-account-rule-settings.png

Disallowed Usage

Track disallowed usage

How it works

Usage of specific services and regions may be unexpected, unnecessary, or against policy. This recommendation can help identify such usage so that it can be investigated and potentially terminated for cost savings. You can specify both whitelists and blacklists for allowed and disallowed services and regions. Optima will trigger a recommendation for anything that is disallowed after applying both whitelist and blacklist items. These lists are applied in the following order:

  1. Any whitelisted usage is allowed.
  2. Then any blacklisted usage is disallowed (flagged in a recommendation).
  3. Finally any remaining usage is allowed (default-allow).

If you want to globally restrict a specific service, you will need to use the Disallowed Service Usage rule for the appropriate cloud provider (i.e.*/AmazonEC2/*). If you would like to restrict a service in specific accounts or regions, you can create individual Disallowed Service Usage rules for the black-listed accounts or regions for the appropriate cloud provider (ie. */AmazonEC2/EU (London)).

Sample Recommendation

The usage of this service is disallowed by the AWS Disallowed Svc Usage rule , and has an estimated monthly run-rate of $62.068, which is 44.80086437833907% of the total usage.

The top 10 costs/resources observed are:

  • $0.762 for Storage (rightscale-vsphere-dev) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $1.801 for Storage (rightscale-openstack) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $1.941 for Storage (rightscale-cloudstack-dev) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $1.953 for Storage (rightscale-openstack-dev) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $2.249 for Storage (rightscale-vscale) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $2.437 for Storage (rightscale-cloudstack) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $2.970 for Storage (rightscale-us-west) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $8.556 for Storage (rightscale-vsphere-windows) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $15.489 for Storage (rightscale-openstack-windows) TimedStorage-ByteHrs
  • $22.131 for Storage (rightscale-cloudstack-windows) TimedStorage-ByteHrs

optima-disallowed-usage-recommendation.png

Rule Settings

AWS Disallowed Svc Usage

Any service withinn AWS that is not already allowed by the AWS Allowed Svc Usage setting can be explicitly disallowed, otherwise it will be flaged as allowed in the disallowed usage recommendation. Wildcards (*) are supported in any of the 3 positions to denote any.

  • Type: string_array
  • Default value: [*/AmazonGameLift/* */*/South America (Sau Paulo)]

Azure Disallowed Svc Usage

Any service withinn Azure that is not already allowed by the Azure Allowed Svc Usage setting can be explicitly disallowed, otherwise it will be flaged as allowed in the disallowed usage recommendation. Wildcards (*) are supported in any of the 3 positions to denote any.

  • Type: string_array
  • Default value: [*/Microsoft.CognitiveServices/* */Microsoft.Devices/*]

AWS Allowed Svc Usage

Any service usage within AWS matching this setting will be allowed by the Disallowed Usage recommendation. Wildcards (*) are supported in any of the 3 positions to denote any.

  • Type: string_array
  • Default value: No Default

Azure Allowed Svc Usage

Any service usage within Azure matching this setting will be allowed by the Disallowed Usage recommendation. Wildcards (*) are supported in any of the 3 positions to denote any.

  • Type: string_array
  • Default value: No Default

optima-disallowed-usage-rule-settings-update.png

AWS and Azure Regions (Locations) and Services

Below is a list of AWS and Azure Regions (locations) that would be used to for the location parameter of the disallowed usage settings

Format for Disallowed/Allowed Service Usage Settings: [Account Number -or- Subscription ID]/[Service Type]/[Location]

AWS Account Number: This is the 12 digit account number of your Cloud Account. Your consolidated billing group/organization may contain many individual accounts. The number should be typed with no dashes or spaces. Example: 123456789012

Azure Subscription ID: The Azure Subscription ID is a GUID which can be found by clicking on the Cloud name/link in the Your Clouds list.

How to navigate to the Your Clouds list:

  • Select Settings from the Primary Nav
  • Select Clouds from the Account settings column from the dropdown menu
  • Select the Cloud that you would like to retrieve the Subscription ID (see below)

optima_azure_subscription_id.png

Example: 1234567a-123b-123f-g555-12121212h102

Service Type: This is the billing product code. Example: AmazonEC2

Location: This is the product/location code. Example: US West(Oregon)

AWS Locations AWS Services Azure Locations Azure Services
AsiaPacific(Tokyo) AmazonApiGateway EastUS Compute
AsiaPacific(Seoul) AmazonCloudFront EastUS2 Microsoft.Compute
AsiaPacific(Singapore) AmazonCloudWatch CentralUS Microsoft.Network
AsiaPacific(Sydney) AmazonDynamoDB NorthCentralUS Mircrosoft.Storage
AsiaPacific(Mumbai) AmazonEC2 SouthCentralUS Microsoft.Web
Canada(Central) AmazonECR WestCentralUS Storage
EU(Frankfurt) AmazonEFS WestUS microsoft.security
EU(Ireland) AmazonElastiCache WestUS2
EU(London) AmazonES USGovVirginia
SouthAmerica(SaoPaulo) AmazonGlacier USGovIowa
USEast(N.Virginia) AmazonKinesis USGovArizona
USEast(Ohio) AmazonKinesisFirehose USGovTexas
USWest(N.California) AmazonRDS USDoDEast
USWest(Oregon) AmazonRedshift USDoDCentral
AWSGovCloud(US) AmazonRoute53 CanadaEast
AmazonS3 CanadaCentral
AmazonSES BrazilSouth
AmazonSimpleDB NorthEurope
AmazonSNS WestEurope
AmazonSWF GermanyCentral
AmazonVPC GermanyNortheast
AmazonWorkMail UKWest
AWSCloudTrail UKSouth
AWSConfig UKSouth2
AWSDirectConnect UKNorth
AWSDirectoryService FranceCentral
awskms FranceSouth
AWSLambda SoutheastAsia
AWSQueueService EastAsia
AWSSupportBusiness AustraliaEast
awswaf AustraliaSoutheast
AWSXRay China
datapipeline ChinaEast
ElasticMapReduce ChinaNorth
CentralIndia
WestIndia
SouthIndia
JapanEast
JapanWest
KoreaCentral
KoreaSouth
SouthAfricaWest

Example

Scenario:

  • I only want to allow the following services: EC2, S3, & RDS
  • I want to allow EC2, but only in US West (Oregon) and US East (Ohio)
  • I want to restrict account 123456789012 from using RDS

Rule Settings:

  • Disallowed Service Usage: [123456789012/AmazonRDS/*' '*/*/*]
  • Allowed Service Usage: [*/AmazonEC2/US East (Ohio) */AmazonEC2/US West (Oregon) */AmazonS3/* */AmazonRDS/*]

Schedule Instances

Stop or terminate instances outside of business hours

How it works

By stopping or terminating instances outside of business hours up to 65% of costs can be saved. This is primarily applicable to instances used for dev & test purposes. Note: only instances that have been running non-stop for the past 7 days in the current month are flagged, therefore no recommendations will be issued until the 8th of the month.

Sample Recommendation

Terminate or stop this instance, which has been running non-stop since at least 2017-04-01 00:00:00 +0000 UTC (418h0m0s) to reduce the monthly cost from a projected $79.06 to $23.53 by stopping the instance for 10 hours/night or $51.76 by stopping the instance over the weekend.

optima-place-instances-on-a-schedule.png

Rule Settings

Azure Dev Tags

Set of tags that flag dev&test Azure instances. * may be used as wildcard. Examples: dev, name=test, dev

Minimum Savings Threshold

Specify the minimum monthly savings value required for a recommendation to be issued, on a per resource basis. Note: this setting applies to all recommendations. Example: 1.00

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0

Minimum Instance Savings Threshold

Minimum forecasted monthly savings per instance that will trigger a recommendation. Note: this setting applies to multiple recommendations, including Cheaper Region & Superseded Instance Type. Changing the value of this setting will also be reflected in the Cheaper Region & Superseded Instance Type recommendation. Example: 100.00

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0

EC2 Dev Tags

Set of AWS Cost Allocation Tags that flag EC2 instances for recommendations. * may be used as wildcard. It is recommended to prefix your tag patterns with a *. Examples: "*dev", "*role=dev", "*dev=*"

  • Type: string_array
  • Default value: dev* *test*

optima-place-instances-on-a-schedule-rule-settings.png

Unattached Volumes

Terminate volumes that are not attached to instances

How it works

Unattached volumes generally serve no useful purpose and are often remains of terminated instances. Such volumes should be deleted. If the data needs to be preserved a snapshot can be taken.

Sample Recommendation

Delete this volume which has been running non-stop since at least 2017-09-08 21:40 UTC to reduce the monthly cost from a projected $4.00 to $0.

optima-unattached-volume-recommendation-detail.png

Rule Settings

Unattached Volume Duration

number of hours before an unattached volume is considered for deletion. Example: 1

  • Type: float
  • Default value: 1.0